Our project has submitted written evidence to the UN Special Rapporteur on on extreme poverty and human rights, Professor Philip Alston. Professor Alston will undertake an official visit to the UK from 6 to 16 November 2018 at the invitation of the government. His visit will focus, in accordance with his mandate, on the interlinkages between poverty and the realisation of human rights in the United Kingdom.
In our evidence, Project Director Professor Peter Dwyer, University of York; Dr Lisa Scullion, University of Salford, and Dr Sharon Wright, University of Glasgow, write on behalf of our project on the erosion of economic and social rights as a core component of national citizenship status and justifications for such rights on the basis of universal human needs. Based on our final findings, the researchers’ evidence details how benefit sanctions leave many unable to meet their basic needs, with those sanctioned increasingly reliant on charitable and (where available) familial provision for support.
Read our evidence in full.
Our new video explains the multiple problems our research found with conditionality in Universal Credit. Negative impacts and counterproductive effects of sanctions were widespread, and for those already in work conditionality simply did not make sense. Our project’s UC lead researcher Dr Sharon Wright from the University of Glasgow explains in the video.
Read our findings in full here.
Our researchers from the University of Glasgow have called for greater social security powers to be devolved to Scotland to end the punitive UK sanction regime.
In Scotland, newly devolved social security legislation is based on the principles of ‘dignity, fairness and respect’, with employment services being needs based and voluntary without sanctions. However, the findings of our new report launched today show that, with many social security powers still reserved to Westminster, it means an ineffective UK system of conditionality and sanctions is causing profound suffering to people in Scotland.
Welfare conditionality is about linking welfare rights to ‘responsible’ behaviour. A principle of conditionality holds that access to certain basic, publicly provided, welfare benefits and services should be dependent on an individual first agreeing to meet particular obligations or patterns of behaviour. It has been a key element of welfare state reform in many countries since the mid-1990s.
Proponents argue this helps people transition off benefits and into paid work, but critics refute this and contend that it exacerbates social exclusion, and that experiencing benefit sanctions can push disadvantaged people’s finances into disarray.
The Scottish WelCond findings report was led by Dr Sharon Wright of the University of Glasgow, and also co-authored or fed into by other academics and researchers from our six-university team funded by the Economic and Social Research Council. It draws upon three waves of repeat interviews with Universal Credit recipients, jobseekers, disabled people, migrants, lone parents, homeless people, offenders and those subject to anti-social behaviour interventions and Family Intervention Projects in Scotland.
Dr Wright said: “These are exciting times for Scotland, where devolved social security is based on dignity, fairness and respect. Scottish employment services are needs-based and voluntary, provided without sanctions.
“However, many social security powers remain reserved to Westminster. Our research shows that the ineffective UK system of conditionality and sanctions causes profound suffering throughout Scotland. Disabled people, those who have long-term health conditions, lone parents, jobseekers and, under Universal Credit, low-paid workers, are all badly affected by sanctions. We are asking the Scottish Government to lobby Westminster for greater social security powers to end the punitive sanction regime in Scotland.” Watch our video
Key findings from the research include:
- Disabled people tended to be positive about the prospect of a devolved social security system in Scotland, although overall there was a lack of awareness of newly devolved Scottish powers amongst research participants
- Research participants were keen to work and made self-directed efforts to improve their situation
- The threat or experience of benefit sanctions did not improve job outcomes amongst research participants, and instead were counterproductive, leading to negative outcomes (e.g. anxiety, depression, poverty, debt and worsening health) and created new barriers to work (eg, reduced self-esteem and educed income for job-search)
- Support for benefit claimants mainly consisted of mandatory self-help activities e.g. online job hunting, which few participants found useful. Responsive, holistic or in-depth support tended to be lacking.
This research adds to the evidence-base already created by other briefings from our project that highlight the ineffectiveness of punitive conditionality within the welfare system. Key policy recommendations include:
- That the Scottish Parliament lobby the UK Government to transfer greater powers to Scotland, in order to promote the extension of the principles of dignity, fairness and respect within Scottish social security and employment services.
- To reform the currently reserved parts of the conditionality system under Universal Credit, Jobseeker’s Allowance and Employment and Support Allowance, to ensure that Jobcentre Plus users are treated with empathy and compassion, and that sanctions are reduced in length/severity and removed completely for vulnerable people.
- That the Scottish Government and UK DWP continue to collaborate to establish new cooperative Scotland-wide practice agreements to bridge the gap between the reserved and devolved social security and employment service systems.
Much of the recent debate surrounding the controversial rollout of Universal Credit (UC) has focused on the six week wait for UC claimants to receive support. One core feature of UC that has been largely overlooked in this discussion, however, is the disciplinary role of sanctions and the various adverse impacts that they have on individuals. In this new blog, researcher Evan Williams shows how the rise of sanctioning in UK social security has transferred to the new system.
Researcher Evan Williams shows how the rise of sanctioning in UK social security has transferred to the new system
Much of the recent media, think tank and parliamentary debate surrounding the controversial rollout of Universal Credit (UC) has focused on the harmful six week wait for UC claimants to receive support. One core feature of UC that has been largely overlooked in this discussion, however, is the disciplinary role of sanctions and the various adverse impacts that they have on individuals. This short piece provides some context to the current UC sanctions regime by focusing on sanctioning policy for Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA) claimants – one of the six existing means-tested benefits that UC replaces – under the previous Coalition Government (2010-2015). Read More
In this guest blog, specialist welfare rights advice practitioner and trainer Sarah Batty explores the impact of welfare reforms on social tenants in the North East. Her research looks at the discretionary powers of Jobcentre work coaches who administer the ‘personalised conditionality’ within the new Universal Credit. She explores the experiences of two women with health conditions who had also experienced benefit sanctions. Read her blog
Specialist welfare rights advice practitioner and trainer Sarah Batty outlines her 2017 research into the impact of welfare reforms on social tenants in the North East
I am particularly interested in the interaction between increasing conditionality and increasing discretion within the social security system. One aspect of this is the discretionary powers of Jobcentre work coaches who administer the ‘personalised conditionality’ within the new Universal Credit (UC). I wanted to explore the perspectives of claimants, and among the people who talked to me were two women with health conditions who had also experienced benefit sanctions. Their stories illuminate the emerging tension between discretionary conditionality and support for vulnerable people. Read More
WelCond project Director Professor Peter Dwyer and Universal Credit Lead Researcher Dr Sharon Wright appeared on the BBC2 Victoria Derbyshire programme today. They raised issues in an in-depth report on Universal Credit and its effects on people already in work, particularly women.
Watch the programme on iPlayer (scroll to 16 min) or YouTube and read the BBC news story.
Our project gave evidence the the Commons Work and Pensions Committee’s inquiry into the rollout of Universal Credit. We told the committee of reports from our interviewees including: frequent financial hardship both in and out of work, poverty, unmanageable debt, rent arrears and eviction. We found that the long waiting period for an initial payment to be processed (5-6 weeks) in combination with payment delays meant many claimants did not have sufficient income for basic necessities.
Our recommendations include: Read More
Members of the WelCond research team Professor Peter Dwyer and Dr Sharon Wright wrote a blog for The Conversation in which they detail problems with Universal Credit and call for a rethink. The blog includes experiences from some of the UC recipients in our study. Here we republish the blog.